Memory Tool Architecture¶
The memory tool is built of three main elements:
- The live heap graph exists in memory, and is managed by the C++ allocator and
garbage collector. In order to get access to the structure of this graph, a
specialized interface is created to represent its state. The
JS::ubi::Nodeis the basis for this representation. This interface can be created from the live heap graph, or a serialized, offline snapshot from a previous moment in time. Our various heap analyses (census, dominator trees, shortest paths, etc) run on top of
ubiin the name stands for “ubiquitous” and provides a namespace for memory analyses in C++ code.
HeapAnalysesWorkerruns in a worker thread, performing analyses on snapshots and translating the results into something the frontend can render simply and quickly. The
HeapAnalysesClientis used to communicate between the worker and the main thread.
- Finally, the last element is the frontend that renders data received from the
HeapAnalysesClientto the DOM and translates user input into requests for new data with the
little use of the Remote Debugger Server and the actors that reside in it. Use
MemoryActor is limited to toggling
allocation stack recording on and off, and transferring heap snapshots from the
debuggee (which is on the server) to the
HeapAnalysesWorker (which is on the
client). A nice benefit that naturally emerges, is that supporting “legacy”
servers (eg, using Firefox Developer Edition as a client to remote debug a
release Firefox for Android server) is a no-op. As we add new analyses, we can
run them on snapshots taken on old servers no problem. The only requirement is
that changes to the snapshot format itself remain backwards compatible.
JS::ubi::Node is a lightweight serializable interface that can represent the
current state of the heap graph. For a deeper dive into the particulars of how
it works, it is very well documented in the
A “heap snapshot” is a representation of the heap graph at some particular past instance in time.
A “heap analysis” is an algorithm that runs on a
JS::ubi::Node heap graph.
Generally, analyses can run on either the live heap graph or a deserialized
snapshot. Example analyses include “census”, which aggregates and counts nodes
into various user-specified buckets; “dominator trees”, which compute the
and retained size for all nodes in the heap graph; and “shortest paths” which
finds the shortest paths from the GC roots to some subset of nodes.
Saving Heap Snapshots¶
Saving a heap snapshot has a few requirements:
- The binary format must remain backwards compatible and future extensible.
- The live heap graph must not mutate while we are in the process of serializing it.
- The act of saving a heap snapshot should impose as little memory overhead as possible. If we are taking a snapshot to debug frequent out-of-memory errors, we don’t want to trigger an OOM ourselves!
To solve (1), we use the protobuf
message format. The message definitions themselves are in
devtools/shared/heapsnapshot/CoreDump.proto. We always use
so we can change our mind about what fields are required sometime in the future.
Deserialization checks the semantic integrity of deserialized protobuf messages.
For (2), we rely on SpiderMonkey’s GC rooting hazard static analysis and the
AutoCheckCannotGC dynamic analysis to ensure that neither JS nor GC runs and
modifies objects or moves them from one address in memory to another. There is
no equivalent suppression and static analysis technique for the
so care must be taken not to invoke methods that could start cycle collection or
mutate the heap graph from the cycle collector’s perspective. At the time of
writing, we don’t yet support saving the cycle collector’s portion of the heap
graph in snapshots, but that work is deemed Very Important and Very High
Finally, (3) imposes upon us that we do not build the serialized heap snapshot binary blob in memory, but instead stream it out to disk while generating it.
Once all of that is accounted for, saving snapshots becomes pretty straight
forward. We traverse the live heap graph with
JS::ubi::BreadthFirst, create a protobuf message for each node and each node’s
edges, and write these messages to disk before continuing the traversal to the
ChromeUtils.saveHeapSnapshot function. See
Reading Heap Snapshots¶
Reading heap snapshots has less restrictions than saving heap snapshots. The
protobuf messages that make up the core dump are deserialized one by one, stored
as a set of
DeserializedNodes and a set of
DeserializedEdges, and the result
DeserializedEdge classes implement the
JS::ubi::Node interface. Analyses running on offline heap snapshots rather
than the live heap graph operate on these classes (unknowingly, of course).
Heap analyses operate on
JS::ubi::Node graphs without knowledge of whether
that graph is backed by the live heap graph or an offline heap snapshot. They
must make sure never to allocate GC things or modify the live heap graph.
In general, analyses are implemented in their own
via a method on the
interface, there is a small amount of glue code in Gecko. The
C++ class implements the webidl interface. The analyses methods (eg
ComputeDominatorTree) take the deserialized nodes and edges from the heap
JS::ubi::Nodes from them, call the analyses from
js/public/Ubi*.h, and wrap the results in something that can be represented in
For API documentation on running specific analyses, see the
HeapSnapshot webidl interface.
JS::ubi::Node, Snapshots, and Analyses¶
The majority of the tests reside within
For reading and saving heap snapshots, most tests are gtests. The gtests can be
run with the
mach gtest DevTools.* command. The rest are integration sanity
tests to make sure we can read and save snapshots in various environments, such
as xpcshell or workers. These can be run with the usual
mach test $PATH
There are also
JS::ubi::Node related unit tests in
for running the JIT tests.
HeapAnalysesWorker orchestrates running specific analyses on snapshots and
transforming the results into something that can simply and quickly be rendered
by the frontend. The analyses can take some time to run (sometimes on the order
of seconds), so doing them in a worker thread allows the interface to stay
HeapAnalysisClient provides the main thread’s interface to the
HeapAnalysesWorker doesn’t actually do much itself; mostly just shuffling
data and transforming it from one representation to another or calling C++
utility functions exposed by webidl that do those things. Most of these are
implemented as traversals of the resulting census or dominator trees.
See the following files for details on the various data transformations and
shuffling that the
HeapAnalysesWorker delegates to.
Tests for the
HeapAnalysesClient reside in
devtools/shared/heapsnapshot/tests/** and can be run with the usual
mach test $PATH command.
The frontend of the memory tool is built with React and Redux.
We have React components in
We have Redux reducers in
We have Redux actions and action-creating tasks in
React components should be pure functions from their props to the rendered (virtual) DOM. Redux reducers should also be observably pure.
Impurity within the frontend is confined to the tasks that are creating and
dispatching actions. All communication with the outside world (such as the
HeapAnalysesWorker, the Remote Debugger Server, or the file system) is
restricted to within these tasks.
SAVING → SAVED → READING → READ ↗ IMPORTING
Each of the report types (census, diffing, tree maps, dominators) have their own states as well, and are documented at
These report states are updated as the various filtering and selecting options
are updated in the UI.
Testing the Frontend¶
Unit tests for React components are in
Unit tests for actions, reducers, and state changes are in
Holistic integration tests for the frontend and the whole memory tool are in
All tests can be run with the usual
mach test $PATH command.